Biology B.S.

General Education FOUNDATIONS

Please use this link to view a list of courses that meet each GEF requirement.

NOTE: Some major requirements will fulfill specific GEF requirements. Please see the curriculum requirements listed below for details on which GEFs you will need to select.

General Education Foundations
F1 - Composition & Rhetoric3-6
Introduction to Composition and Rhetoric
and Composition, Rhetoric, and Research
Accelerated Academic Writing
F2A/F2B - Science & Technology4-6
F3 - Math & Quantitative Skills3-4
F4 - Society & Connections3
F5 - Human Inquiry & the Past3
F6 - The Arts & Creativity3
F7 - Global Studies & Diversity3
F8 - Focus (may be satisfied by completion of a minor, double major, or dual degree)9
Total Hours31-37

Degree Requirements

Students must complete WVU General Education Foundations requirements, College B.S. requirements, major requirements, and electives with a minimum of 120 hours.  For complete details on these requirements, visit the B.S. Degrees tab on the Eberly College of Arts and Sciences page.

Departmental Requirements for the B.S. in Biology

Students intending to graduate with a B.S. in Biology must earn a minimum of 38 hours of coursework in biology or approved courses in the biological sciences, with a minimum of 120 hours total required for graduation.  Students may not earn both a B.A. and a B.S. in Biology.

  • Capstone Requirement: The university requires the successful completion of a Biology capstone course (BIOL 320 or BIOL 321). The three semester, BIOL 486, may be counted as the Biology Capstone Experience in place of BIOL 320 or BIOL 321 .  Two hours of  BIOL 486 will be counted as part of the core requirements (replacingBIOL 320 or BIOL 321 ).
     
  • Writing and Communication Skills Requirement:  The Biology Bachelor of Science is a SpeakWrite Certified ProgramTM. SpeakWrite Certified programs incorporate and develop students’ written, verbal, visual, and mediated communication skills across the curriculum.

  • Calculation of the Grade Point Average (GPA) in the Biology major: A GPA of 2.0 in Biology course work is required for graduation. All attempts at the following courses will  be used to calculate the GPA in the Biology major: BIOL 115 , BIOL 117 , BIOL 219 , BIOL 221 ,BIOL 320 or BIOL 321 , BIOL 327 and all upper-division courses counted as BIOL electives. A minimum grade of C- must be attained in BIOL 115 and 117.  If BIOL 101-104 are substituted for BIOL 115 , they will be excluded from the GPA calculation, and no other 100- or 200-level Biology courses will be used to satisfy elective requirements, nor will they be used in the calculation of the Biology GPA.
  • Area of Emphasis (AOE): Students interested in completing an area of emphasis  must complete the requirements as outlined in the Area of Emphasis section.
  • Electives and Lab Requirement: Students must complete 20 hours of upper-division biology elective credits, with a least one course in each biology sub-discipline (1- Cell and Molecular, 2-Organismal, 3- Evolution and Ecology, 4- Integrative).  Courses listed in more than one group may only be used to satisfy one group requirement.  At least two of the selected classes must have a laboratory (lab courses are indicated with an asterisk in the curriculum table below).  A maximum of two of the non-biology courses (AEM 341, AEM 401, AGBI 410, BIOC 339, BIOC 531, GEOL 331, PHYS 225) may be used to fulfill the twenty-hour elective requirement.
     
  • Research Option: With permission of the department, students may enroll in BIOL 386 or BIOL 486.  Six hours of BIOL 386 and  BIOL 486 may be used towards the 20 hours of Biology upper division electives.  One semester of BIOL 386 or BIOL 486 may be used to satisfy one of the lab requirements.

Curriculum Requirements

UNIVERSITY REQUIREMENTS19
First Year Seminar
GEF Requirements: credits may vary depending on overlap
ECAS B.S. Requirements4
Global Studies and Diversity Requirement
Math Requirement:
Calculus 1a with Precalculus
and Calculus 1b with Precalculus
OR
Calculus 1
Science Requirement
See above (may overlap with GEF and major requirements)
DEPARTMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
Biology Requirements:16
These courses must be taken in sequence:
Principles of Biology
Introductory Physiology
The Living Cell
Ecology and Evolution
Professional Development
Chemistry Requirement:16
Select one of the following:
Fundamentals of Chemistry
and Fundamentals of Chemistry
Principles of Chemistry
and Principles of Chemistry
And take all of the following:
Organic Chemistry
and Organic Chemistry Laboratory
Organic Chemistry
and Organic Chemistry Laboratory
Statistics Requirement:3
Elementary Statistical Inference
Introduction to Probability and Statistics
Physics Requirement8
Select one of the following pairs:
Introductory Physics
and Introductory Physics
General Physics
and General Physics
Biology Electives: **20
Select at least one from each of the following four groups,
and please select two lab courses (marked with a single asterisk):
1- Cell and Molecular Biology
Advanced Cellular/Molecular Biology
Advanced Cellular/Molecular Biology-Laboratory (*)
Introduction to Virology
Molecular Basis of Cellular Growth
Developmental Biology
Developmental Biology Laboratory (*)
Molecular Genetics
Molecular Genetics Laboratory (*)
Cell Physiology
Neuroscience 1
Cell and Molecular Biology Methods
Introduction to Recombinant DNA (*)
Molecular Endocrinology
Molecular Endocrinology-Laboratory (*)
Epigenetics
Genomics
Protein Structure and Function
Developmental Genetics
Molecular Biology of Cancer
Bioinformatics
Forensic Biology (*)
Vertebrate Microanatomy (*)
Plant Development
Molecular Basis of Disease
Immunology
Evolution of Infectious Diseases
Microbial Symbiosis
2- Organismal Biology
Developmental Biology
Developmental Biology Laboratory (*)
Molecular Genetics
Molecular Genetics Laboratory (*)
Vertebrate Embryology (*)
Physiological Psychology
Physiological Psychology
Invertebrate Zoology (*)
Ichthyology (*)
Neuroscience 2
Plant Physiology (*)
Plant Diversity (*)
Plant Anatomy and Development (*)
Flora of West Virginia (*)
Plant Geography
Molecular Endocrinology
Molecular Endocrinology-Laboratory (*)
Developmental Genetics
Herpetology
General Animal Physiology
Animal Behavior (*)
Neuroethology
Comparative Anatomy (*)
Vertebrate Microanatomy (*)
Plant Systematics (*)
Plant Development
Microbial Symbiosis
General Microbiology (*)
3- Evolution and Ecology
History of Biology
Behavioral Ecology
Plant Diversity (*)
Plant Ecology (*)
Plant Geography
Genomics
Freshwater Ecology
Evolution of Infectious Diseases
Principles of Evolution
Global Ecology
Population and Quantitative Genetics
Environmental Microbiology (*)
Paleontology (*)
4- Integrative Biology
Biometry
Population and Quantitative Genetics
Medical Imaging Physics
Select one of the following:
Introductory Biochemistry
Introduction to Biochemistry
General Biochemistry
Capstone Requirement2
Select one of the following options:
The Total Science Experience: Genomics
Total Science Experience Lab
or 2 semesters of the following:
Honors Investigation and Thesis (9 hours) ***
AND 1 semester of the following:
Undergraduate Research
Or 3 semesters of the following:
Honors Investigation and Thesis
GENERAL ELECTIVES32
Number of electives will vary based on GEF and B.S. Requirements.
Total Hours120
*

 Indicates a lab course

**

BIOL 493: Special Topics may also be used to satisfy Biology electives. Please see Biology adviser to determine elective group designation.
Permission of the department must be obtained to enroll in BIOL 386, 486, 490, and 491. Only four credit hours of 386/486 may be used towards the fourteen hour elective requirement. BIOL 490 and BIOL 491 do not satisfy the required fourteen hours of electives in biology.  These can serve as general electives.
Seniors with a minimum of a 3.00 GPA may take 500-level courses in biology with departmental and college approval.

Suggested Plan of Study

First Year
FallHoursSpringHours
WVUE 1911ENGL 101 (GEF 1)3
GEF 43BIOL 117 (GEF 8; B.S. First Area 2)4
BIOL 115 (GEF 2; B.S. First Area 1)4CHEM 116 (GEF 8; B.S. Second Area 2)4
CHEM 115 (GEF 8; B.S. Second Area 1)4General Elective3
MATH 155 (GEF 3)4 
 16 14
Second Year
FallHoursSpringHours
ENGL 102 (GEF 1)3BIOL 2213
BIOL 2194BIOL 3271
CHEM 233
CHEM 235
4CHEM 234
CHEM 236
4
PHYS 101 (B.S. Third Area 1)4PHYS 102 (B.S. Third Area 2)4
 STAT Requirement3
 15 15
Third Year
FallHoursSpringHours
GEF 53BIOL Capstone2
GEF 63BIOL Elective Lab 1**4
ECAS Global Studies and Diversity Requirement (GEF 7)3BIOL Elective Group III3
BIOL Elective Group I***3General Elective3
BIOL Elective Group II3General Elective3
 15 15
Fourth Year
FallHoursSpringHours
BIOL Elective Lab 2**4BIOL Elective Group IV***3
General Elective3General Elective3
General Elective3General Elective 3
General Elective3General Elective3
General Elective2General Elective3
 15 15
Total credit hours: 120
*

BIOL 321 / BIOL 320 (capstone) may be replaced with three semesters of BIOL 486 (research).

**

 At least two upper division lab courses must be taken, one of which can be 386 or 486.

***

 At least one 300-level or above course must be taken in each biology sub-discipline (1-4).

B.S. Biology: Pre-Medical track

The following information is included for advising purposes only and is not an approved curriculum. Completing the stipulations suggested below will not result in an additional designation on any official record.

  • Independent Research: Students with aspirations to attend top-rank medical schools should include at least three hours of independent research (BIOL 386 or BIOL 486) in their program of study if they are to be competitive.  The three semester, BIOL 486, may be counted as the Biology Capstone in place of BIOL 321.  Six hours of BIOL 386 and BIOL 486 may be used to satisfy upper division electives. One semester of BIOL 386 or will satisfy one lab course.
     
  • MCAT and Medical School admission requirements:    Students who will take the MCAT in 2015 or later should take PSYC 101SOCA 101, SOCA 105 and one further course in Psychology and Sociology in order to be prepared for the new social sciences section of the MCAT - consult with your adviser for more detailed information.  The course of study outlined below is recommended for students interested in attending medical school. However, admission requirements will vary from one medical school to another, so a review of specific requirements for each school of interest is recommended.

Note: The list of electives and recommendations outlined below are recommended for students interested in attending medical school. However, admission requirements will vary from one medical school to another, so a review of specific requirements for each school of interest is recommended. B.S. Biology students should select their biology electives from the list below. "General Requirements" and "Biochemistry Requirements" are strongly recommended for a competitive medical school application. Students interested in Graduate School and Research are strongly encouraged to take MATH 156. Please consult your adviser.

General Requirements10
Advanced Cellular/Molecular Biology
General Animal Physiology
Comparative Anatomy
Biochemistry Requirement3
Select one of the following:
Introductory Biochemistry
Introduction to Biochemistry
Ecology and Evolution Requirement3
Select one of the following:
Behavioral Ecology
Principles of Evolution
Population and Quantitative Genetics
Laboratory Requirement4
Select one of the following:
Vertebrate Embryology
Vertebrate Microanatomy
General Microbiology
Environmental Microbiology
Electives3
Select remaining hours from the following:
Biometry
Introduction to Virology
Molecular Basis of Cellular Growth
Developmental Biology
Molecular Genetics
Molecular Genetics Laboratory
Cell Physiology
Physiological Psychology
Neuroscience 1
Undergraduate Research
Cell and Molecular Biology Methods
Introduction to Recombinant DNA
Molecular Endocrinology
Epigenetics
Developmental Genetics
Molecular Biology of Cancer
Animal Behavior
Molecular Basis of Disease
Immunology
Evolution of Infectious Diseases
Microbial Symbiosis
Medical Imaging Physics
Total Hours23

Areas of Emphasis Offered:

Bachelor of Arts or Science in Biology: Genomics Area of Emphasis

A biology degree with an emphasis in Genomics provides the student with all the preparation necessary for graduate school in genomics or bioinformatics, or medical school and careers in the health fields. Biology majors pursuing the area of emphasis in Genomics take two introductory courses to learn about basic concepts and tools in genomics and the practice and application of bioinformatics and then take a further concentration of courses in Biology that are related to Genomics.

Genomics Area of Emphasis Requirements:

Students wishing to complete a Genomics Area of Emphasis must take the following selection of courses as part of their required Biology electives, either for the B.A. or the B.S.

Curriculum Requirements

BIOL 320The Total Science Experience: Genomics2
BIOL 420Genomics3
BIOL 430Bioinformatics3
Select 2 of the following6
Molecular Genetics
and Molecular Genetics Laboratory
Epigenetics
Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids and Proteins
Evolution of Infectious Diseases
Microbial Symbiosis
Principles of Evolution
Population and Quantitative Genetics
Total Hours14

Suggested Plan of study for the B.A. in Biology with an Area of Emphasis in Genomics

First Year
FallHoursSpringHours
WVUE 1911ENGL 101 (GEF 1)3
Foreign Language 1013Foreign Language 1023
BIOL 115 (GEF 2)4BIOL 117 (GEF 8)4
MATH 150 (GEF 3)3CHEM 116 (GEF 8)4
CHEM 115 (GEF 8)4General Elective1
 15 15
Second Year
FallHoursSpringHours
ENGL 102 (GEF 1)3GEF 43
BIOL 2194Foreign Language 2043
CHEM 233
CHEM 235
4BIOL 2213
Foreign Language 2033BIOL 3271
General Elective1CHEM 234
CHEM 236
4
 General Elective1
 15 15
Third Year
FallHoursSpringHours
GEF 53GEF 6 (ECAS Fine Arts Requirement)3
BIOL 4203PHYS 1024
PHYS 1014BIOL 320 (Capstone)2
Statistics Requirement3BIOL 4303
General Elective2General Elective3
 15 15
Fourth Year
FallHoursSpringHours
ECAS Global Studies and Diversity Requirement (GEF 7)3BIOL Elective Genomics3
BIOL Elective Genomics4BIOL Elective1
General Elective3General Elective2
General Elective3General Elective3
General Elective2General Elective3
 General Elective3
 15 15
Total credit hours: 120

Suggested Plan of study for the B.S. in Biology with an Area of Emphasis in Genomics 

First Year
FallHoursSpringHours
WVUE 1911ENGL 101 (GEF 1)3
GEF 43BIOL 117 (GEF 8; B.S. First Area 2)4
BIOL 115 (GEF 2; B.S. First Area 1)4CHEM 116 (GEF 8; B.S. Second Area 2)4
CHEM 115 (GEF 8; B.S. Second Area 1)4STAT 2113
MATH 155 (GEF 3)4 
 16 14
Second Year
FallHoursSpringHours
ENGL 102 (GEF 1)3BIOL 2213
BIOL 2194BIOL 3271
CHEM 233
CHEM 235
4CHEM 234
CHEM 236
4
PHYS 101 (B.S. Third Area 1)4PHYS 102 (B.S. Third Area 2)4
 General Elective3
 15 15
Third Year
FallHoursSpringHours
GEF 53BIOL Elective Lab 14
GEF 63BIOL 430 (Elective Group I or IV)3
ECAS Global Studies and Diversity Requirement (GEF 7)3BIOL 320 (Capstone)2
BIOL 420 (Elective Group I or II)3General Elective3
BIOL Elective Group II3General Elective3
 15 15
Fourth Year
FallHoursSpringHours
BIOL Elective Lab 2 (Genomics)4BIOL Elective Group (Remaining Group; Genomics)3
General Elective3General Elective3
General Elective3General Elective3
General Elective3General Elective3
General Elective2General Elective3
 15 15
Total credit hours: 120

Bachelor of Arts or Science in Biology: Neuroscience Area of Emphasis

A biology degree with an emphasis in Neuroscience provides the student with all the preparation necessary for graduate school in Neuroscience or medical school and the medical school entrance exam - the MCAT. Biology majors pursuing the area of emphasis in Neuroscience take two introductory courses to learn about basic features of neurons and the organization of the brain and then take a further concentration of courses in biology that are related to Neuroscience.

Neuroscience Area of Emphasis Requirements:

Students wishing to complete a Neuroscience Area of Emphasis must take the following selection of courses as part of their required Biology electives, either for the B.A. or the B.S.

Curriculum requirements

BIOL 348Neuroscience 1 *3
BIOL 349Neuroscience 2 **3
Select 2 of the following:6
Animal Communication
Neuroethology
Computational Neuroscience
Central Nervous System Evolution and Development
Sensory Neural Systems and Behavior
Current Topics in Neuroscience
Total Hours12
*

Fulfills the Cell and Molecular Biology elective (B.S.)

**

 Fulfills the Organismal elective (B.S.)

Suggested Plan of Study the Biology B.A. with the Neuroscience Area of Emphasis

First Year
FallHoursSpringHours
WVUE 1911ENGL 101 (GEF 1)3
Foreign Language 1013Foreign Language 1023
BIOL 115 (GEF 2)4BIOL 117 (GEF 8)4
MATH 150 (GEF 3)3CHEM 116 (GEF 8)4
CHEM 115 (GEF 8)4General Elective1
 15 15
Second Year
FallHoursSpringHours
ENGL 102 (GEF 1)3GEF 43
Foreign Language 2033Foreign Language 2043
BIOL 2194BIOL 2213
CHEM 233
CHEM 235
4BIOL 3271
General Elective1CHEM 234
CHEM 236
4
 General Elective1
 15 15
Third Year
FallHoursSpringHours
GEF 53GEF 6 (ECAS Fine Arts Requirement)3
BIOL 3483BIOL Capstone2
PHYS 1014BIOL 3493
Statistics Requirement3PHYS 1024
General Elective2General Elective3
 15 15
Fourth Year
FallHoursSpringHours
ECAS Global Studies and Diversity Requirement (GEF 7)3BIOL Elective Neuroscience3
BIOL Elective Neuroscience4BIOL Elective1
General Elective3General Elective2
General Elective3General Elective3
General Elective2General Elective3
 General Elective3
 15 15
Total credit hours: 120

Suggested Plan of Study the Biology B.S. with the Neuroscience Area of Emphasis 

First Year
FallHoursSpringHours
WVUE 1911ENGL 101 (GEF 1)3
GEF 43BIOL 117 (GEF 8; B.S. First Area 2)4
BIOL 115 (GEF 2; B.S. First Area 1)4CHEM 116 (GEF 8; B.S. Second Area 2)4
CHEM 115 (GEF 8; B.S. Second Area 1)4STAT 2113
MATH 155 (GEF 3)4 
 16 14
Second Year
FallHoursSpringHours
ENGL 102 (GEF 1)3BIOL 2213
BIOL 2194BIOL 3271
CHEM 233
CHEM 235
4CHEM 234
CHEM 236
4
PHYS 101 (B.S. Third Area 1)4PHYS 102 (B.S. Third Area 2)4
 General Elective3
 15 15
Third Year
FallHoursSpringHours
GEF 5 3BIOL Capstone2
GEF 63BIOL Elective Lab 14
ECAS Global Studies and Diversity Requirement(GEF 7)3BIOL 349 (Elective Group II)3
BIOL 348 (Elective Group I)3General Elective3
BIOL Elective Group III (Neuroscience)3General Elective3
 15 15
Fourth Year
FallHoursSpringHours
BIOL Elective Lab 24BIOL Elective Group IV (Neuroscience)3
General Elective3General Elective3
General Elective3General Elective3
General Elective3General Elective3
General Elective2General Elective3
 15 15
Total credit hours: 120

Bachelor of Arts or Science in Biology: Ecology and Environmental Biology Area of Emphasis

Ecology and Environmental Biology Area of Emphasis

Curriculum Requirements

Core Courses8
Biometry (fulfills the group IV elective)
Total Science Experience Lab
Principles of Evolution (fulfills the group III elective)
Ecology Electives6
Select 2 of the following:
Writing Appalachian Ecology
Behavioral Ecology
Plant Ecology (fulfills the laboratory requirement)
Plant Geography (fulfills the group II elective)
Freshwater Ecology (fulfills the laboratory requirement)
Microbial Symbiosis (fulfills the group I elective)
Global Ecology
Total Hours14

Suggested Plan of Study for the B.a. in Biology with an Area of Emphasis in Ecology/Environmental Biology

First Year
FallHoursSpringHours
WVUE 1911ENGL 101 (GEF 1)3
Foreign Language 1013Foreign Language 1023
BIOL 115 (GEF 2)4BIOL 117 (GEF 8)4
CHEM 115 (GEF 8)4CHEM 116 (GEF 8)4
MATH 150 (GEF 3)3General Elective1
 15 15
Second Year
FallHoursSpringHours
ENGL 102 (GEF 1)3Foreign Language 2043
Foreign Language 2033BIOL 2213
BIOL 2194BIOL 3271
CHEM 2333CHEM 2343
CHEM 2351CHEM 2361
General Elective 1STAT 2113
 General Elective1
 15 15
Third Year
FallHoursSpringHours
GEF 43ECAS Fine Arts Requirement (GEF 6)3
GEF 53BIOL 3212
BIOL 3023BIOL 4613
PHYS 1014PHYS 1024
General Elective2General Elective 3
 15 15
Fourth Year
FallHoursSpringHours
ECAS Global Studies and Diversity Requirement (GEF 7)3BIOL elective with Laboratory4
Ecology AoE Elective 13Ecology AoE Elective 23
General Elective3General elective2
General Elective3General Elective3
General Elective3General Elective3
 15 15
Total credit hours: 120

Suggested Plan of Study for the B.s. in Biology with an Area of Emphasis in Ecology/Environmental Biology

First Year
FallHoursSpringHours
WVUE 1911ENGL 101 (GEF 1)3
GEF 43BIOL 117 (B.S. First Area Course 2; GEF 8)4
BIOL 115 (B.S. First Area Course 1; GEF 2)4CHEM 116 (B.S. Second Area Course 2; GEF 8)4
CHEM 115 (B.S. Second Area Course 1; GEF 8)4STAT 2113
MATH 155 (GEF 3)4 
 16 14
Second Year
FallHoursSpringHours
ENGL 102 (GEF 1)3BIOL 2213
BIOL 2194BIOL 3271
CHEM 2333CHEM 2343
CHEM 2351CHEM 2361
PHYS 101 (BS Third Area Course 1)4PHYS 102 (BS Third Area Course 1)4
 General Elective3
 15 15
Third Year
FallHoursSpringHours
GEF 53BIOL 3212
GEF 63BIOL 461 (Group III elective)3
ECAS Global Studies and Diversity Requirement (GEF 7)3General Elective4
BIOL 302 (Group IV elective)3General Elective3
General Elective3General Elective3
 15 15
Fourth Year
FallHoursSpringHours
Ecology AoE Elective Course 13Ecology AoE Elective Course 23
Biology Elective with lab (Group I)*4BIOL Elective with Lab (Group II)*4
General Elective2General Elective3
General Elective3General Elective3
General Elecvite3General Elective2
 15 15
Total credit hours: 120
*

 Maybe fulfilled by a course selected in Area of Emphasis.

Courses

BIOL 101. General Biology. 3 Hours.

PR or CONC: BIOL 103. Introductory course in biology: cellular, organismal, and population genetics, including reproduction, growth and development, and evolution.

BIOL 102. General Biology. 3 Hours.

PR or CONC: BIOL 104. Introductory biology: energetics and physiology of cells, organisms, and populations, including regulation and control of multicellular organisms.

BIOL 103. General Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

PR or CONC: BIOL 101. Experiments in biology: genetics and evolution; reproduction, growth, and development of cells, organisms, and populations.

BIOL 104. General Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

PR or CONC: BIOL 102. Experiments in biology: materials exchange, actions of enzymes, photosynthesis and respiration, and physiology of organisms.

BIOL 105. Environmental Biology. 3 Hours.

(Intended for non-biology majors.) Population growth and human impacts on the environment, including ecosystem destruction, biological diversity, pollution, and global climate change are explored to obtain the concepts necessary to understand complex environmental issues of our time.

BIOL 106. Environmental Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

CoReq: BIOL 105. Field and laboratory exercises explore fundamental ecological concepts and environmental problems, such as biodiversity, pollution, and natural resource utilization.

BIOL 107. Biotechnology and Society. 3 Hours.

An overview of the use of biotechnology to solve agricultural, medical, and environmental problems. Bioethical concerns and societal impacts of the use of the technologies will be discussed.

BIOL 115. Principles of Biology. 4 Hours.

An introductory course presenting basic principles of modern biology. This course represents the first in a four-course, integrated sequence required of biology majors. Topics include ecology and evolution, organismal biology, and cellular/molecular biology.

BIOL 117. Introductory Physiology. 4 Hours.

PR: BIOL 115 or BIOL 101 and BIOL 102 AND BIOL 103 AND BIOL 104. Continuation of BIOL 115. The diversity of reproductive, developmental, functional, and integrative mechanisms in plants and animals.

BIOL 122. Human Sexuality. 3 Hours.

A study of biological, behavioral and societal aspects of sexuality. Issues considered include changing fecundity, social-legal implications, sex roles, sexually transmitted diseases, populations, erotica, aging, dysfunctions, and decision- making skills for sex related issues.

BIOL 124. The Human Environment. 3 Hours.

An examination of several aspects of current worldwide environmental deterioration caused by the actions of humans. Public policies and alternative mitigative strategies are also presented.

BIOL 215. Cell Biology for Pre-Pharmacy. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 115 and BIOL 117 and (CHEM 115 or CHEM 117). Structure, function and diversity of cells with an emphasis on gene expression and cellular phenotype including cell chemistry, energetics, and regulation of cell activities. This course is offered only to Pre-Pharmacy majors.

BIOL 219. The Living Cell. 4 Hours.

PR: (CHEM 115 or CHEM 117) and BIOL 117. Continuation of BIOL 117. Structure, function and diversity of cells with an emphasis on gene expression and cellular phenotype including cell chemistry, energetics, and regulation of cell activities.

BIOL 221. Ecology and Evolution. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. Basic concepts in evolution and ecology including Darwin's theory of natural selection, modern population genetics, speciation, population growth and regulation, demography, community ecology, ecosystem dynamics, and human ecology.

BIOL 235. Human Physiology. 3 Hours.

PR: (BIOL 101 and BIOL 102 and BIOL 103 and BIOL 104) or BIOL 115. (Intended for non-biology majors.) An introductory course in the function of the human.

BIOL 236. Human Physiology: Quantitative Laboratory. 1 Hour.

PR: MATH 156 and CHEM 116 and (BIOL 115 or (BIOL 101 and BIOL 102 and BIOL 103 and BIOL 104)) and PR or CONC: BIOL 235. Optional lab for BIOL 235 incorporating engineering concepts, such as mass and energy balances, circuit theory, and chemical kinetics to quantify and help understand many aspects of human physiology.

BIOL 293A-Z. Special Topics. 1-6 Hours.

PR: Consent. Investigation of topics not covered in regularly scheduled courses.

BIOL 298A-D. Principles of Biology Add-On. 1-3 Hours.

PR: Students in the Honors Program and consent of the honors director. Independent reading, study or research.

BIOL 301. History of Biology. 3 Hours.

PR: (BIOL 101 and BIOL 103 and BIOL 102 and BIOL 104) or BIOL 115. History of development of biological knowledge with philosophical and social backgrounds.

BIOL 302. Biometry. 3 Hours.

PR: STAT 211. Application of quantitative methods and statistics to biological data with emphasis on hands-on hypothesis construction, experimental design, data analysis and biological interpretation of statistical results.

BIOL 310. Advanced Cellular/Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. Advanced study of molecular mechanisms underlying fundamental cellular processes.

BIOL 311. Advanced Cellular/Molecular Biology-Laboratory. 2 Hours.

PR or Conc: BIOL 310. Experimental approaches to the study of cellular systems.

BIOL 312. Introduction to Virology. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. Survey of viruses, their modes of replication and spread, and the medical and economic significance of viral diseases in public health.

BIOL 313. Molecular Basis of Cellular Growth. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. Study of the integration of internal and external influences as they regulate the division, growth, and differentiation of cells. Topics include hormones as cell effectors, cancer, and stem cells.

BIOL 315. Communicating Natural Science. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219 or BIOL 221. Teaches students to effectively communicate about scientific discoveries and scientific issues in both written and oral forms to professional scientists, the public, the media and politicians. Students will learn to consider the knowledge, biases and goals of their intended audience to communicate thoughtfully and effectively.

BIOL 316. Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. A molecular genetic analysis of the mechanisms by which multicellular organisms develop from single cells.

BIOL 317. Developmental Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

PR: BIOL 219. CoReq: BIOL 316. Experimental approaches to the genetic analysis of the mechanisms by which multicellular organisms develop from single cells.

BIOL 318. Writing Appalachian Ecology. 3 Hours.

This course encourages students to think about the long-term future of our planet. What could our world be like in 200 years? How will current environmental problems change the future? How will relationships with the natural world change? Students address questions like these in creative nonfiction essays they write about research being conducted at the Fernow Experimental Forest in WV.

BIOL 320. The Total Science Experience: Genomics. 2 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. Biological research experience incorporating critical skills of being a research scientist, including writing grant proposals, manuscripts, and materials for presentation of results in a public forum. Students conceive, design, propose, execute, analyze, and report an experiment with a genomics focus. Fulfills the capstone requirement in Biology and provides a realistic exposure to joys and challenges of performing scientific research.

BIOL 321. Total Science Experience Lab. 2 Hours.

PR or Conc: BIOL 221. Biological research experience incorporating diverse learning experiences that take place in the process of being a research scientist; including writing grant proposals, manuscripts, and presentation of results in a public forum.

BIOL 324. Molecular Genetics. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. Theoretical and practical knowledge in genetics as a field of study and as an approach for investigating biological problems.

BIOL 325. Molecular Genetics Laboratory. 1 Hour.

PR: BIOL 219. CoReq: BIOL 324. The laboratory is a logical sequence of experiments providing actual research experience in molecular genetics. Must be taken at the same time as BIOL 324.

BIOL 327. Professional Development. 1 Hour.

PR: BIOL 219. This course provides an overview of opportunities for students graduating with degrees in the biological sciences. An assessment test will help identify strengths and weaknesses within the field.

BIOL 335. Cell Physiology. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 117. Emphasis on the unity and diversity of cells; membrane structure and function; and the role that intracellular compartments, cytoskeleton, and entracellular matrix play in cell physiology.

BIOL 336. Vertebrate Embryology. 4 Hours.

PR: BIOL 115 and BIOL 117 and BIOL 219 and BIOL 221. An experimental and descriptive analysis of vertebrate development.

BIOL 337. Physiological Psychology. 3 Hours.

PR: PSYC 301 and junior or senior standing. Advanced study of the physiological mechanisms of behavior. Topics include neural and endocrine mechanisms of behavior and issues, methods, and findings in behavioral neuroscience. (Also listed as PSYC 426.).

BIOL 338. Behavioral Ecology. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 221. Consideration of the influences of environmental factors on short-and long-term regulation, control, and evolution of the behavior of animals.

BIOL 339. Animal Communication. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 221 or consent. Communication mediates most interactions between individuals and the brain dedicates much of its resources to generating and processing these signals. This course examines why and how animals communicate, the physiological mechanisms involved in generating / sensing communication signals, how evolution shapes communication, and how communication signals can influence decision making.

BIOL 340. Invertebrate Zoology. 4 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219 and BIOL 221. The evolution of animals without vertebral columns. The laboratory includes field trips, including one that takes an entire weekend. (Dissection kit required.).

BIOL 341. Ichthyology. 4 Hours.

Study of the internal and external structure of fishes, their systematic and ecological relationships, and their distribution in time and space. (Dissection kit required.).

BIOL 348. Neuroscience 1. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. An introduction to neuroscience, including basic neuroanatomical neurophysiology, and the relationship between the central nervous system, physiology, and behavior.

BIOL 349. Neuroscience 2. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 348. An introductory systems level course on organization of the nervous system, from an evolutionary to a clinical perspective. Topics include development and functional organization of sensory, motor, autonomic and cognitive systems. The evolutionary history and human health concerns associated with these systems will be addressed, through lecture, discussion, and readings in the primary literature.

BIOL 350. Plant Physiology. 4 Hours.

PR: (BIOL 117 and CHEM 116) or (CHEM 112 and PLSC 206). Physiochemical processes of plants.

BIOL 351. Plant Diversity. 4 Hours.

PR: (BIOL 101 and BIOL 102 and BIOL 103 and BIOL 104) or BIOL 115. Evolution, morphology, life cycles, ecology, and uses of cyanobacteria, lichens, algae, bryphytes, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Laboratory emphasizes comparing living specimens with local field trips.

BIOL 352. Plant Anatomy and Development. 4 Hours.

PR: BIOL 117 or PLSC 206. How plants (especially angiosperms) develop, stand up, defend themselves, transport food and water, and reproduce; also evolution and uses of wood and bark. Students observe development from spores, seeds, and cuttings. (Two local field trips.).

BIOL 353. Flora of West Virginia. 3 Hours.

PR: (BIOL 101 and BIOL 103 and BIOL 102 and BIOL 104) or BIOL 115. Identification of local woody and herbaceous seed plants, with emphasis on common native and introduced species. Conducted primarily through field trips to nearby areas with the use of dichotomous keys to determine the scientific names of observed specimens.

BIOL 361. Plant Ecology. 4 Hours.

PR: BIOL 221. Introduction to the four divisions of plant ecology, including physiological ecology, population ecology, community ecology and ecosystem ecology.

BIOL 363. Plant Geography. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 221. World-wide distribution patterns of plants and factors related to these distributions, including dispersal. Limiting factors, climate, isolation, evolutionary history, plate tectonics, pleistocene glaciations, and human activities. Plant communities and soils of polar, temperate, and tropical biomes are discussed.

BIOL 376. Research Methods. 3 Hours.

PR or CONC: BIOL 221 (may be taken as a corequisite). An introduction to the tools and mathematics that scientists use to solve scientific problems. Mathematical modeling, experimental design, hypothesis formulation, data collection, use of statistics, reading and evaluating the scientific literature, writing and reviewing scientific papers, and oral presentation of scientific research.

BIOL 384A-C. Marine EcoSystem Topics. 3 Hours.

Three-week field based courses offered at the Marine Science Consortium in Virginia. Courses vary by year including marine ichthyology, marine mammals, and coral reef ecology. A maximum of 6 hours counts toward the biology major.

BIOL 386. Undergraduate Research. 1-4 Hours.

PR: Written consent of chair and a 2.7 grade point average in biology. (May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credit hours.) Individual laboratory or field experiments supervised by a faculty member.

BIOL 393A-C. Communicating Natural Science. 1-6 Hours.

BIOL 409. Biochemical Basis of Therapeutics. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. This course explores the process of drug discovery and development. The topics emphasized include the biological factors that determine success, failure, or limitation of therapeutics. Other topics include, specific therapeutic areas and regulation.

BIOL 410. Cell and Molecular Biology Methods. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. Introduction to the theory, application, ethic and economics of biotechnologies.

BIOL 411. Introduction to Recombinant DNA. 4 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. An introductory course covering the basic principles and techniques of recombinant DNA technology, includes molecular cloning, isolation of plasmid DNA, agarose/acrylamide gel electrophoresis, restriction enzyme mapping, nucleic acid hybridization, and DNA sequencing.

BIOL 413. Molecular Endocrinology. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. Hormonal action is discussed at the cellular and molecular levels. Topics include hormone production and regulation, receptor kinetics and activation, and receptor output.

BIOL 414. Molecular Endocrinology-Laboratory. 1 Hour.

CoReq: BIOL 413. Experimental techniques used to study hormones and receptors.

BIOL 415. Epigenetics. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219 or consent. Explores the molecular mechanisms, phenotypic phenomena and current applications of epigenetics and the study of how genetic information is used and maintained.

BIOL 418. Medical Genetics. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. The use of genetic principles to uncover biological mechanisms of both inherited and infectious diseases. The role of the human genome. The evolution of genetic diseases and the impact on human populations. Genetic medicine and current medical treatments.

BIOL 420. Genomics. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. Advanced elective examining biology and evolution on a genome-wide scale. Topics include fields of study and methods of DNA sequence acquisition and annotation, including exploration of the human genome and its contribution to disease discovery.

BIOL 422. Current Topics in Genome Biology. 1 Hour.

PR: BIOL 219. Exploration of modern topics in genomics research through interactive discussion of current literature. Students learn approaches to critical evaluation of manuscripts while exploring current research in this rapidly growing field. The course is organized around student-led discussions of manuscripts selected by the class. Undergraduate students are paired with graduate students to facilitate interpretation of complex material.

BIOL 423. Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids and Proteins. 3 Hours.

PR: AGBI 410 or equivalent. Focuses on the biochemistry of proteins and nucleic acids, with an emphasis on application of advanced knowledge to contemporary problems in cell biology, neuroscience, and immunology. Develops critical thinking, predictive, and problem-solving abilities that prepare students for health-related professional/graduate schools and the biotech industry.

BIOL 424. Protein Structure and Function. 4 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219 and (CHEM 231 or CHEM 233). Explores fundamentals of the protein structure; methods of structure determination; features of globular, membrane, and fibrous proteins; and approaches to protein classification.

BIOL 425. Developmental Genetics. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. This course covers the mechanisms by which genetics instructs the process of development. The complex interactions between cells, the environment, and the genome are presented.

BIOL 426. Molecular Biology of Cancer. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. Exploration of molecular pathways leading to the development of cancer with emphasis on gene expression, cell cycle regulation, and signaling pathways targeted in conventional therapies.

BIOL 430. Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219 or Consent. An introduction to algorithms and tools for analysis of genetic and genomic data in an evolutionary context.

BIOL 432. Forensic Biology. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. Biological applications and advances in forensic identification technologies, including advantages and limitations of different approaches. Focuses on isolation, quantification, amplification, and analysis of DNA.

BIOL 433. Herpetology. 3 Hours.

Investigation into the biology, ecology, and evolution of reptiles and amphibians, emphasizing North American species especially those found in the state of West Virginia. (One field exercise outside of regular time is required.).

BIOL 434. Forensic Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

PR or CONC: BIOL 432. Prepares students in the processing of biological samples for DNA analysis, including presumptive and confirmatory testing, isolation of nuclear DNA, quantification, amplification, and analysis of DNA. Extensive hands-on practical experience and application of knowledge.

BIOL 436. General Animal Physiology. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 221. In-depth, current treatment of physiological principles which operate at various levels of biological organization in animals of diverse taxonomic relationships. Understanding is developed from background lectures and student analyses in discussion sessions of research literature.

BIOL 438. Animal Behavior. 4 Hours.

PR: BIOL 221. Introduction to animal behavior (ethology) emphasizing the ecology and evolution of individual and social behaviors. Laboratory includes independent investigation of behavioral phenomena. (Offered in even numbered years.).

BIOL 439. Neuroethology. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 348. Explores the way sensory systems process information to mediate behavior in a wide variety of animals in order to understand similarities and differences in neural mechanisms.

BIOL 440. Comparative Anatomy. 4 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219 and BIOL 221 or consent. A functional and evolutionary study of vertebrate structure. (Dissection kit required.).

BIOL 441. Vertebrate Microanatomy. 5 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. Structural and functional approach to the study of tissues and organs of vertebrates.

BIOL 446. Freshwater Ecology. 4 Hours.

PR: (BIOL 101 and BIOL 102 and BIOL 103 and BIOL 104) or BIOL 115 or WMAN 224 or consent. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of inland waters with emphasis on the structure and function of stream ecosystems. (Also listed as WMAN 446.).

BIOL 450. Plant Systematics. 4 Hours.

PR: BIOL 117. Study of the taxonomy of flowering plants worldwide and related topics in angiosperm classification and evolution. Laboratories emphasize characteristics of selected families of monocotyledons and dicotyledons using living and herbarium material.

BIOL 451. Plant Development. 4 Hours.

PR: BIOL 221 and (CHEM 235 or AGBI 410). Experimental studies of plant growth and development.

BIOL 453. Molecular Basis of Disease. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. Examine medical, ethical, and legal/regulatory issues emerging from the Human Genome Project and its applications to personalized medicine.

BIOL 454. Immunology. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. Explores the fundamental principles and practices of immunology including how the immune system is organized, how it functions to keep us healthy, and how it can cause allergies and autoimmune disease.

BIOL 455. Evolution of Infectious Diseases. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 221. The application of phylogenetics, microbiology, immunology, and epidemiology towards understanding the evolution of infectious diseases. Students will develop a fundamental understanding of the significance of evolution and ecology in infectious disease emergence and control.

BIOL 456. Microbial Symbiosis. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 221. An understanding of the significance of microbial symbioses towards ecological and health processes will be developed. Molecular techniques used towards identifying the composition and functions of microbial communities will be discussed. (Also listed as BIOL 615.).

BIOL 461. Principles of Evolution. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 221. Introduction to the study of evolution, including genetics of evolutionary change, speciation and adaptation molecular evolution, the history of life, extinction, co-evolution and the origins of humans.

BIOL 463. Global Ecology. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 221. The Earth viewed as a changing biogeochemical system. Topics include the structure, composition and dynamics of the ecosphere, nutrient cycles, changing atmospheric composition, climate change, ozone depletion, land-use change, biological invasions, and changes in biodiversity.

BIOL 464. Population and Quantitative Genetics. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 221. Relationship of gene and genotype frequencies in populations of diploid organisms and the effects of mutation, selection, and non-random mating in relation to single gene pairs. Application of these concepts to multigenic inheritance of quantitative traits.

BIOL 475. Neurobiological Diseases. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 219. The physiological mechanisms of neurobiological diseases. Impact of neurobiological diseases on society. Standard and experimental treatments. Current research.

BIOL 476. Computational Neuroscience. 4 Hours.

PR: BIOL 348 or consent. Tools and concepts used to probe and characterize the dynamics of neurons, neural networks and neural coding mechanisms. Lectures introducing concepts and discussion sessions focusing on current research literature complement computer laboratories where the student learns programing skills, analytical tools and neural modeling methods used in computational neuroscience research.

BIOL 477. Central Nervous System Evolution and Development. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 348. Origin and evolution of the central nervous system, focusing on developmental and genetic mechanisms underlying structural modifications that serve as the basis for the evolution of animal behavior.

BIOL 478. Sensory Neural Systems and Behavior. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 348. This course explores how brains acquire information about the external world and process this information to produce sensory perceptions. Students gain a deep understanding of sensory transduction and neural processing at the cellular, network and systems levels. Additionally the class is aimed at enhancing science communication.

BIOL 479. Current Topics in Neuroscience. 3 Hours.

PR: BIOL 348. Fundamental principles of nervous system organization with an emphasis on interactions between neurons and the consequences for behavior. There will be a focus on recent advances in our understanding of each organizational principle.

BIOL 486. Honors Investigation and Thesis. 1-4 Hours.

(May be repeated for credit; max credit 12 hr.) PR: Second semester of junior year, recommendation of advisor, biology majors only. Permission required. Supervised readings, investigation, and study.

BIOL 490. Teaching Practicum. 1-3 Hours.

PR: Consent. (May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credit hours.) Teaching practice as a tutor or assistant.

BIOL 491. Professional Field Experience. 1-18 Hours.

PR: Consent. (May be repeated up to a maximum of 18 hours.) Prearranged experiential learning program, to be planned, supervised, and evaluated for credit by faculty and field supervisors. Involves temporary placement with public or private enterprise for professional competence development.

BIOL 492. Directed Study. 1-3 Hours.

Directed study, reading, and/or research.

BIOL 493A-Z. Special Topics. 0-6 Hours.

PR: Consent. Investigation of topics not covered in regularly scheduled courses.

BIOL 494. Seminar. 1-3 Hours.

PR: Consent. Presentation and discussion of topics of mutual concern to students and faculty.

BIOL 495. Independent Study. 1-6 Hours.

Faculty supervised study of topics not available through regular course offerings.

BIOL 496. Senior Thesis. 1-3 Hours.

PR: Consent.

BIOL 497. Research. 1-6 Hours.

Independent research projects.